All Excerpts from John C. Lilly

"The voice of the dolphin in air is like that of the human in that they can pronounce vowels and combinations of vowels, but have difficulties with the consonants."--Aristotle

"They (cetaceans) have been on the planet now with brains our size or larger for 25 million years. We've only been here with our present brain size about two-tenths of a million years. So they've been here something on the order of 25 to 50 to 100 times the length of time we have.
I'd just like to talk to such ancient beings..."--JCL

    1-Who Are The Cetaceans?
    2-Aristotle's Observations- John as Aristotle
    4-Adult bottlenose dolphin brain weight compared
    5-Dolphins' Complex Communication
    6-Stereo Phonation Mechanisms
    7-Two examples of Interaction with humans
    .....................Distress Call
    ...............................Sissy saves drowning woman
    ...............................Sissy mimics John's Dogpaddle
    8-Sexual Behavior
    9-Earth Coincidence Control Office;
    ......................To all humankind what to follow

THE CETACEANS (DOLPHINS, PORPOISES, AND WHALES) are the pelagic (completely waterborne) mammals of the sea. There are 79 such species. The reproduction of the cetaceans is the typical mammalian reproduction via sexual intercourse, gestation of the young dolphin in the womb, and birth, under water. The cetaceans nurse their young, feeding them milk formed in mammary glands. The cetaceans are warmblooded, with a brain temperature of 37 degrees C (98.6 degrees F). The cetaceans have lungs and breathe air. Their blood is circulated by a four-chambered heart similar to that of the land mammals. Their muscles closely resemble those of the land mammals and are used for propelling them through the water by movements of their flukes.
Most of the life of the cetaceans is spent under water, and only a small fraction of the time is spent at the surface to breathe and to rise up and look around. Some species leap out of the water when it is safe to do so. The breathing act of a cetacean car, be seen as a spout: a column of water droplets combined with the air that they expel from their lungs. The water droplets are from seawater collected in the sacs just below the blow hole from which the air mixed with the water comes forth. The explosive expulsion of the air from their lungs sucks up this water, forming the spout. The cetaceans have exquisitely streamlined bodies of distinctive shapes.

At the front end of their bodies the dolphins have long beaks, which are their jaws. The true porpoises have more blunt front ends, as do the pilot whales and the sperm whales. Most species have a dorsal fin, from the six-foot-high dorsal fin of a male Orcinus orca down to the practically nonexistent dorsal fin of some species of river dolphins and baleen whales.

The home territory of most of the cetaceans is the oceans and seas of earth, which cover 71 percent of the planet's surface. A few species live in freshwater rivers (the Amazon, the Plata, etc.). Some of the seagoing cetaceans travel up freshwater rivers some distance (Tursiops in the St. Johns River of Florida, the Beluga up the Mackenzie River and the St. Lawrence River, etc.). Since the cetaceans are effectively independent of their environmental water, they can live quite safely in freshwater, as has been demonstrated experimentally with the bottle-nosed dolphin.

The cetaceans cannot drink seawater; their kidneys will not concentrate the urine any more than the kidneys of humans or other land mammals will. All of the cetaceans' water comes from the metabolism of the fat in their diet, changing the fat to carbon dioxide, which is exhaled, and water, which is held in the tissues. In effect then, the cetaceans are desert animals depending upon the water derived strictly from their food.

In order to avoid the ingestion of seawater as they take in their food, they have two major methods of keeping the seawater out: in the case of the toothed whales, there is a sphincter in the back of the throat, a circular muscle that closes the back of the throat until food, fish' or squid is to pass into the stomach. This sphincter squeezes the salt water off the food morsel and prevents the accumulation of salt beyond the sphincter. The second mechanism is found in the baleen whales in which they open their huge mouths in the dense krill (small shrimp like creatures growing in abundance mainly in the Arctic and Antarctic oceans), take in the krill plus the seawater, and move the seawater out through the strainer known as the baleen, catching the krill in the strainer. They then close the mouth, which now has no seawater in it, and swallow the krill. Thus do the cetaceans prevent the taking on of the large amounts of salt present in seawater. Physiological experiments with humans and other land mammals show that drinking seawater leads to dehydration unless it is diluted with freshwater by a factor of approximately ten times.

Experiments on captive bottle-nosed dolphins show that they will drink freshwater when it is presented to them from a hose. This drinking then leads to their not eating for a day or two. They then start eating again and stop drinking water. Apparently, in their natural state they do not separate thirst from hunger. Drinking freshwater allows them to feel hunger separate from thirst for the first time.

The diet of the toothed whales, including the dolphins and porpoises, consists of fish and-or squid. Small squid are eaten by the smaller cetaceans, and giant squid are eaten by the largest of the toothed whales, the sperm whale. The largest of the dolphins, Orcinus orca, the so-called killer whale, eats large fish and seals and some old dolphins of smaller size. They have also been seen to eat parts of baleen whales that have been killed by man. Baleen whales subsist totally on krill. The larger the cetacean, the longer he or she can go without food after a prolonged feeding period. The bottle-nosed dolphin can go approximately a week without food; the killer whale can go approximately six weeks without food; and the largest of the whales, the blue whale, can go approximately six months without food. During the period of maximum feeding the cetaceans store the food in the form of fat. The fat is then converted into biological energy plus carbon dioxide and water. After a cetacean has burned up all his fat, he can die from lack of water.

Most cetaceans can dive to fairly great depths, depending upon their oxygen capacity, which again depends upon their body size. The larger the cetacean the deeper it can dive without needing air. Before a dive most cetaceans take a series of rapid breaths, then fill their lungs and start downward by lifting their tails out of the water to let the initial impetus of the gravity pull upon their hindquarters. As they dive, their lungs collapse, their ribs cave in, folding along special joints along the sides of their body. The lungs collapse completely, driving the remaining air into the dead spaces within the skull. This trapped air in the dead space is not given access to the bloodstream. The collapse of the lungs and confining of the air out of contact with the blood means that the oxygen and the nitrogen of the blood are at the same partial pressure that they are at the surface at one atmosphere. No nitrogen is forced into the blood or into the fat of their bodies; the nitrogen in the fat is at equilibrium at one atmosphere not at the high pressures of the depths to which they dive. The cetaceans then cannot experience the diver's disease known as bends, or decompression sickness. Bends result from air combining with the blood at the high pressure in the depths, and then, when one returns to the surface with his high pressure nitrogen saturating the fat of the body, one has the bends. As one rises to the surface and lowers the pressure on the body and in the lungs, the nitrogen must come out of the fat and it comes out in the form of painful bubbles that can block the circulation to the lungs and to various tissues. In human divers, using only a snorkel and not an Aqualung, no bends are experienced and they are breathing the way the whales do.

The cetaceans will not experience bends until some human tries to force them to use an Aqualung. Or until some human educes them to breathe air in an open diving bell or in an open undersea house in which the air pressure is kept at the pressure of the water at that depth. Such experiments with dolphins or whales could be very dangerous for the cetaceans in that they have had no experience with bends. However, they may be intelligent enough to rise slowly so that they will not experience he bends.

Cetacean swimming is mostly in three dimensions: two horizontal dimensions and one of depth. Each cetacean adjusts his buoyancy in order to be in a neutrally buoyant condition at a even depth. In the neutrally buoyant condition very little effort is needed to swim. One does not have to exert muscular force to move horizontally and to stay at the given depth. Dolphins have complete streamlining that they can tow each other; one dolphin in the proper position with respect to the other, or one whale in the proper position with respect to the other, is towed long in the swimming pressure pattern of the active dolphin or whale. Such activities show the beautiful streamlining and the low level of friction of the cetaceans with the surrounding water. There are several mechanisms that enhance this lack of friction. The shape of the body is streamlined, but it is also a flexible shape. When a dolphin accelerates, one can see the shape of the body change to match the acceleration vortices generated in the water as the velocity is changed rapidly. Vertical hollows in a definite wave pattern are seen to move along the sides of the animal, shedding the vortices generated. The skin of all cetaceans emits a very fine oil continuously from the front of the animal to the rear. After a whale dives, one can see the oil slick on the surface of the sea. This oil has several functions; its viscosity does not change with temperature and remains very low in either warm water or very cold water. The oil layer on the skin thus provides slippage for the boundary layers of seawater close to the skin, thus reducing the friction of the skin against the water. The cetaceans are literally lubricated, streamlined objects. Experiments on a six-meter international racing yacht, which allowed oil to flow out over the hull, showed that the same principle could be applied to humanly constructed boats and increase their speed considerably.

-from "Communication Between Man and Dolphin"
Aristotle's Observations About Dolphins


In his work, Historia Animalium (The History of Animals), Aristotle makes many pertinent observations about dolphins, including the fact that they bear their young alive, suckle them, breathe air, and communicate by underwater sounds.

Aristotle made a rather startling statement about dolphins:
    "The voice of the dolphin in air is like that of the human in that they can pronounce vowels and combinations of vowels, but have difficulties with the consonants."
This observation had been scorned by nineteenth-century biologists investigating dolphins as biological objects in the sea. These nonparticipant objective observers, who had not experienced the living dolphins at first hand, called this mythology.

On the face of it, Aristotle's statement is rather startling. First of all, dolphins communicate with one another with underwater sounds; but then Aristotle mentions, "the voice of the dolphin in air." Until new observations were made in 1956 and 1957, this statement remained a puzzle. Someone at the time of Aristotle must have heard the voice of the dolphin in air or Aristotle would not have mentioned it. He did not specify the conditions under which this voice was heard in air, nor how the voicing sounds were produced by the dolphins.

John as Aristotle

During the nineteenth century and the early twentieth century biologists said that the whales and dolphins had no vocal chords and therefore had no voicing. The underwater sounds and their sonic emitter apparatus had not yet been investigated.

From Aristotle's writings we know that there were dolphins in the Mediterranean and porpoises in the Black Sea. We can hypothesize that Aristotle, or his contemporaries, experienced dolphins in shallow water pools close to man, in the light of our later knowledge of dolphins, derived from our experiments in the fifties. Modern dolphins under similar circumstances start emitting sounds in air when they are exposed to humans speaking in air. There is no reason to suppose that the ancient dolphins of the Mediterranean did not act as the modern dolphins do.

An extensive search of the written literature, both scientific and literary, since the time of Aristotle, shows no further experience with dolphins' sounds in air as described by Aristotle. Up to 1955 there were only denials of the validity of Aristotle's observations by those who had no opportunity to be close to dolphins in shallow water. Aristotle states further that "small boys and dolphins develop mutual passionate attachments." He told stories of dolphins giving young boys rides, pulling them through the water. He also told of a dolphin beaching itself and dying from grief when a friendly boy left. It was not until the twentieth century that similar episodes are recounted.

"They (cetaceans) have been on the planet now with brains our size or larger for 25 million years. We've only been here with our present brain size about two-tenths of a million years. So they've been here something on the order of 25 to 50 to 100 times the length of time we have.

I'd just like to talk to such ancient beings..."--JCL
"She (Margaret Howe) was teaching this particular dolphin (Peter) how to count in English. There were very interesting things that would happen. He would learn to count from one to ten. Then you'd give him a sequence of integers, say three, four, five, and he'd give you the next one (six). And then finally he'd change the rules and you'd give him three, four, five, and he'd give you four, three, two, one,...count backwards..." --JCL
"During a session in an isolation tank, constructed over a pool where dolphins were swimming, I participated in a conversation between the dolphins. It drove me crazy, there was too much information, they communicated so fast..." --JCL
"While on the bow of a boat, I made eye contact with a passing sperm whale, who posses a brain six times the size of a human. Swimming alongside the boat, this whale zapped me for 20 minutes, communicating to me in visual pictures..."--JCL
"In Coconut Grove, Stewart McVay said nonsense syllables; combinations of consonant-vowels, consonant-vowels, consonant-vowels in lists of one hundred or more in groups up to ten. Elvar would reproduce those. If Scott made a mistake and said for example, "hees-oos-rrs,....ahh....correction" and then he gave ten more, then Elvar would only give the ten after the word "correction." One day a man from Bell Labs was working with phonetically balanced words and he dropped the list. Elvar sounded, "let's go, come on let's go!!."--JCL

Brain weight

The adult bottle nose dolphin has a brain weighing 1700 grams. An adult human has a brain weighing 1450 grams. Ape's brains are limited in size, three hundred to four hundred fifty grams. When humans are born and become adults with brains restricted to these sizes, they are unable to use spoken language adequately to function in our society. To master speech as we know it, humans apparently require a brain size of at least seven hundred to eight hundred grams. The bottle-nosed dolphin's brain as an adult is much larger than this, comparable to that of larger-than-average human brains.

There seems to be a critical size for the associational cortex to furnish an adequate integration between the other areas of the cortex, the sensory and the motor, to form language. One other characteristic of a larger associational cortex would be a much larger memory space available for the storage of the programming necessary for language.

We have found that, in dealing with such a large brained mammal, we must keep the working hypothesis in mind that "they are highly intelligent and are just as interested in communicating with us as we are with them." ... If we use any other hypothesis, we have no success whatsoever in dealing communicatively with them. - JCL
Dolphins' Complex Communication

In 1961 we set up a "dolphin telephone" between two tanks. These tanks were conically insulated and isolated from one another. A telephone was arranged electronically to be two-way, i.e., the dolphin in tank A could talk to the dolphin in tank B and, simultaneously, the dolphin in tank B could talk to the dolphin in tank A. With the frequency band of the telephone band wide open, the useful frequencies transmitted were from approximately 2000 cycles per second to 50,000 cycles per second. By the use of electronic filters, we could limit this band to any part of the above band. The two ends of the telephone operated under water; in tank A there was a transmitter and a receiver and in tank B there was a transmitter and a receiver, all four of which were under water. A dolphin was placed in tank A and another dolphin in tank B.

The dolphin in tank A could communicate only with the dolphin in tank B, and vice versa. Thus their conversation would of necessity be limited to one another. As soon as the telephone was turned on, the dolphins exchanged sounds.

In a previous publication we described how two dolphins exchange such sounds when placed in the same tank isolated from one another physically but allowed to communicate through the water with one another.

In this previous study we showed that dolphins exchange sounds very politely. When one is talking, the other one keeps quiet. In addition, we showed that they exchanged not only whistles, but also exchanged trains of clicking sounds. We also showed that the two kinds of sonic exchanges do not correspond in time, i.e., they can be talking with whistles and talking with clicks trains, the whistles and the clicks completely out of phase with one another. They can be using the silence of the whistle exchange with a click exchange and filling the silences of click exchange with a whistle exchange, and thus each are polite in the same mode. Thus one pair of dolphins talking can sound like two pairs of dolphins talking, one pair exchanging clickings, the other pair exchanging whistles.

These observations led to further studies in which we demonstrated unequivocally that each dolphin has at least two communication emitters, both in the nose, i.e., below the blowhole, one on each side. A right and a left phonation apparatus is demonstrated in the dolphin's nasal passages. Thus a given dolphin can carry on a whistle conversation with his right side and a clicking conversation with his left side and do the two quite independently with the two halves of his brain. An analogous human activity may be thought of as follows: if we could whisper and carry on a whispered conversation and at the same time carry on a vocalized conversation using two different apparatuses. Since we do not have the two sides divided with mid line structures, we do not have this advantage. The dolphin can control the two airflows separately and the two membranes' vibrations separately. A comparable human activity is the typist typing a manuscript and at the same time carrying on a conversation. Now let us return to the "telephone" experiment.

With the telephone between tanks A and B, the resulting sonic exchanges were found to be very polite, most of the time each dolphin maintained silence while the other spoke It was found that while the telephone was turned on, the dolphins would exchange sounds most of the time. If we shut off the telephone, either all the sounds ceased or one or both dolphins gave the simple repetitious personal whistle ( "signature whistle" ) characteristic of a solitary dolphin isolated alone. With the telephone off, any sounds that were emitted were completely out of synchrony with the sound emitted by the other dolphin. Little or no "interlock" was detected between the sounds emitted by the two dolphins. In other words, when sounds did occur with the phone not working, the alternating character of the clicks and of the whistles was lost. Either there was frequent overlap or many emissions were met with silence.

The telephone was modified by adding filters to reduce the intensity of sound at certain frequencies. The dolphins tested the system briefly. If the telephone was satisfactory, i.e., no missing critical frequencies, they continued using it. If it was unsatisfactory, i.e., missing critical frequencies, they stopped using it. In the latter case, they tested the system at intervals. If, meanwhile, we had restored the missing critical frequencies the dolphins resumed their "conversations" over the system.

We soon found that we could not cut the frequencies much below 28,000 cycles per second at the high end nor cut the frequencies much above 5000 cycles at the low end without losing the exchanges. The best performances were found with bands extending from about 2000 to about 80,000 cycles per second. Thus the exchange frequency bands correspond fairly closely with the produced frequency bands. In other words, dolphin conversation used a large portion of those sounds whose frequencies are emitted. In addition, the exchange frequency band and the produced frequency band correspond surprisingly well with the predicted bands corresponding to our speech wave lengths in air by the constant wave length hypothesis. In other words, we use the same wave lengths for speech in air as the dolphins use for their speech in water; the frequencies used are in the same ratio ours to theirs as the ratio of the velocities of sound in the two media, air versus water ( 1 to 4.5).

It is wise to review the question asked at the beginning of this chapter. How do we know that these two dolphins are exchanging intelligent information? May they not be singing a senseless round, making dolphin music, playing a vocal game, or just saying repetitious simple phrases over and over, or possibly humming reassuring sounds to one another?

We do know that they are not just repeating the same thing again and again. To observe this result, one records these exchanges on a tape recorder and slows them down four times. (Ideally, 4 & a half) times according to the constant wave length hypothesis, to reduce the frequencies to our equivalent speech band.) At the new speed, one has lowered their frequencies four times, and stretched out each of their emissions by a factor of four. Thus we lower their 32,000 cycles per second to 8000 cycles per second. And their 1200 cycles per second to 300 cycles per second. Our speech, similarly lengthened, without the frequency changes, is not easily understood, the method is not ideal but we have found it to be useful. (A later development in the Institute allows us to shift to all of the frequencies without lengthening or shortening the emissions. This is discussed elsewhere in this book.)

These recordings are used to listen and to measure the sounds and to find out if the patterns are changing or are merely repetitious (for our pattern perception system, trained as it is to human patterns, not the delphinic ones). Apparently much smaller-brained animals exchange repetitious cries. At least they sound repetitious to us. Frogs, birds, fish, insects, bats, monkeys have different cries for different emotional states. No one so far has detected whether or not these are used for any communication other than the emotional state of the sender, i.e., signaling danger, sexual activities, hunger, etc. A relation seems apparent between the number of different patterns used and the size of the brain of the creature using them. We might thus expect a very large number of patterns in the dolphin exchanges, at least as many as we use in our exchanges. The very small-brained birds and fish have very limited vocabularies, at least as the patterns are currently measured and counted.

In measuring the sonic patterns one basic problem is whether one is measuring aspects that are important to the sender and to the receiver in carrying the meaning. Similarly, it is difficult to choose what to measure in the dolphins' exchanges; we may choose variables not at all important to dolphins and sacrifice the important variables. Therefore, our criteria for differentiating and hence counting the number of different patterns may be totally incorrect. It is necessary to proceed empirically but cautiously and realize the limitations of the methods of arbitrarily choosing patterns.

When listening to the slowed-down exchanges, one is impressed with the numbers of different sounds one hears the dolphins use. The most varied of the transmissions that we have recorded are between "old" dolphins, those with large bones, scarred skin, truncated or missing teeth, and such marks of age. These are the really sophisticated vocalizers. When a Tursiops truncatus has become old enough so that the ends of his teeth are worn down flat, he has accumulated a very large number of sonic patterns which he exchanges with similar dolphins. Youngsters four to five years old have a sonic complexity which does not come up to that of the older ones; but even with them the first striking impression is that the versatility and complexity are well developed, that there is very little monotonous repetition, that one has a hard time keeping up with the new patterns as they emerge. Only if the dolphins are badly and continuously frightened are the sounds emitted monotonous and repetitious.

The sounds the dolphins use in their exchanges are difficult to categorize. They are all difficult to describe in words. In my laboratory, we use the following nine large classes to describe the sounds in a somewhat arbitrary fashion:
    1-sounds that are emitted under water ( "hydrosounds" ) and sounds that are emitted in air ( "air sounds" );
    3-slow click trains;
    4-fast click trains;
    5-sounds resembling elements of human speech, called "humanoid" sounds;
    6-a group that is like mimicry of other sonic sources (fish, ducks, sea gulls, boat engines [inboard or outboard], insects, etc.)
    7-a group that is usually associated with emotional behavior (barks, screeches, hammerings, etc. );
    8-various non-vocalizing sounds including sneezes, respiration sounds (slow and fast), borborygmi, flatulence, tail slaps, the water noises of swimming at the surface, jumping, etc.;
    9-ultrasounds (for us) used in echo-recognition and echo navigation (EREN), sometimes miscalled "SONAR" (sound navigation and ranging) after the human artificial systems.
The steady, most frequent outputs during non-emotional exchanges between dolphins are under water ( "hydrosounds" ) These sounds are mostly whistles and various complex patterns of clickings and short humanoid emissions.

Their most frequent outputs with us are emitted in air, apparently to accommodate to us in our medium. They lift the blowhole up in the air, open it, and make very loud sounds. Such sounds can be whistles, clickings, barks, wails, and various "humanoid" sounds. The barks and wails in air seem to be analogous to their emotion-tied exchanges with one another under water.

The radical shift, voluntarily executed by dolphins making the sound in air as opposed to water is in response to our consistent use of air sounds with them. If we talk back to them under water, they answer us under water. If we talk to them in air, they answer us in air.

We use the following working hypotheses in our communication research with dolphins:

The airborne whistles and the airborne clicks are attempts to communicate with us as they do with one another, i.e., attempts to induce us to use their mode of communication. Their humanoid sounds in air are their approximations to our communication sounds as distorted by their hearing and by their phonation apparatus. With the humanoid sounds, dolphins are attempting to communicate with us in our mode of communication.

At first a dolphin in the presence of a human uses mainly air clicks and air whistles. There are at least two main requirements for the use of humanoids in air:
    1-the dolphin must have heard much human speech and
    2- he must have had a long period of close, kindly contacts with us.
Once a dolphin has started airborne sounds with one or more of us in close contact, he may induce other dolphins in the colony (not in such close contact) to use the new mode, apparently in dolphin-to-dolphin exchanges. This latter airborne mode is apparently rarely, if ever, used by dolphins in the wild.

We have found that, in dealing with such a large brained mammal, we must keep the working hypothesis in mind that "they are highly intelligent and are just as interested in communicating with us as we are with them." (With the species Tursiops truncatus this is reasonable; it may not be reasonable with smaller dolphins.) If we use any other hypothesis, we have no success whatsoever in dealing communicatively with them.

This hypothesis seems to be necessary and even overriding to accomplish the kinds of communication we are accomplishing and attempting to expand. The proof, the incontrovertible truth, that they are interested in this communication is developing slowly and carefully in our laboratory.

FIGURE 3. The Voice of the Dolphin in Air: For a visual of figure 3; ( This table shows the dolphin's mimicry of human speech ( the word "hello" ), albeit at a higher frequency are very close to the same in a Computer Analyses ).

Computer Analyses

In each of 58 frequency bands a computer counts the number of times each of the bands is used above a chosen threshold as occurs in several tape replays of the "hello" and of the dolphin's reply. The bands extend from 135 Hertz to 8000 Hertz at 135 Hertz intervals. In the sixth band from the bottom ( at 810 Hz ) the number of instances of use ( N ) was 512. The use of each of the other bands is linearly proportional to the length of the black bar. It is to be noted that the woman's voice used frequency bands in two separate regions one at low frequencies and one at middle frequencies. The dolphin's reply shifts the lower frequencies to higher ones and matches the group of higher frequencies.

If and when dolphins and we do establish communication on a highly abstract level, the proof will become obvious and incontestable. In this book I give some of the details of this developing picture and give the reasons why we, the ones who work with them, just rely for some time on our faith in their intelligence. This faith is in the working hypothesis that both we and they are intelligent enough to break the interspecies communication barrier between these very different minds.

Without such a faith and working hypothesis one makes bad mistakes in tactics and in strategy with the dolphins. If one assumes that they are stupid, they act in a stupid manner. This is partly because in the eye of the beholder, stupidity is seen everywhere, and partly because dolphins understand, catch on fast, and act the way one expects them to act. We have seen dolphins acting rather stupidly in care of persons who think of them as "overgrown stupid fish kept in an aquarium." These dolphins develop some delightful contrasts in new behavior when one of the "believers" shows up and attempts communication.

This is one of the basic difficulties in this new field. One must have an unusual amount of consciousness of faith in one's hypotheses in order to make progress.

In reality, this faith factor is basic to all fields of science. It is necessary to elicit consciousness of this factor in researchers. Most of the sciences have been able to "forget" this necessity; however, it is present and used. In physics, for example, one constantly has a model in mind of what is happening in the system under investigation, and has a kind of temporary faith in the model. This is how physical apparatuses are designed to test the various consequences of a hypothesis.

In this new scientific area, we use the approach of the theoretical physicist teamed up to a certain extent with that of an experimental physicist. We set up hypotheses and operate temporarily as if they were true. We interact in the system under investigation, with each of us programmed with the hypothesis marked "as if true." We then estimate our progress and see how well we operate. We judge our success (or failure) by our success (or failure) in finding new information, i.e., data that were not predicted by the previous workers, nor by those current researchers whose hypotheses differ from ours. I consider this to be a very important point.

from: The Mind Of The Dolphin: A Nonhuman Intelligence - chapter 3
Stereo Phonation Mechanisms

During our investigation with the phonation of the dolphin we were puzzled by the doubling of the phonation apparatus. Inside the opened blowhole, the passage is double, even as it is in our noses. On each side of the dolphin's nose which is here turned up on the forehead, is a complete set of sacs, muscles, tubes, and a separate vocalization membrane. There is a right phonation apparatus and a left phonation apparatus, each one in its half of the nose. Some of the features of the right apparatus are usually larger than those of the left one. We had come this far in the state of our knowledge in the previous book, Man and Dolphin. This set of puzzling anatomical facts continued to bother me.

When the dolphin gave us controlled, humanoid sounds in air we saw that the two sides were operating quite independently of one another. We took high-speed motion pictures of the activities of the blowhole and found that this was the truth. When these pictures were slowed down we saw that the two sides of the blowhole plug or the two "tongues" (as we now call them) were being used separately in the production of the airborne sounds. With more complete and more sophisticated methods, we have now demonstrated that the dolphin can not only produce sounds on each side, separately and independently, but that he can intermix the two sets of sounds, sequentially and simultaneously.

Because of this, dolphins can speak "in stereo"; a conversation between two dolphins sounds like four individuals.
Two Examples of Interactions with Humans

Sissy saves drowning woman
    A woman fakes drowning.
    Sissy immediately comes to her rescue.
    Sissy puts her right flipper under her and
    pushes the the woman to the edge of the pool,
    keeping her head above water.
    Sissy doesn't let let her back into the pool again for 30 minutes.

Sissy mimics John's Dogpaddle
    Here Sissy mimics John's dogpaddle.
    It must be noted that Sissy was not trained to do this.
    Her actions were natural.
    Dolphins are very intelligent and playful,
    and quickly can learn to mimic humans,
    learn new games...
    not to mention turning the tables
    and teaching new games to the humans
Sexual Behavior

"The gonadal region of the female is located on the ventral posterior portion of the body, where the tail joins the abdominal cavity. This slit includes both the anal and the genital openings. To be entered by the penis of the male, it must be pressed open, as it were, by the entering penis. The female has two mammary slits, one on each side of the genital slit. The nipples obtrude from the slits during suckling by the baby dolphin. The mammary glands themselves are buried deep within the body and extend anteriorly from the slits. The female has a bicornuate uterus, and although reports of single births predominate in the literature, Aristotle refers to the births of twins. Aristotle apparently knew these animals extremely well_we should not really look askance at anything he has related until we have evidence to the contrary; we have been able to corroborate some of his behavioral data which had been discounted by scholars during intervening centuries.

"The testicles of the male are buried in the body, extending anteriorly from the genital slit on each side, and are amazingly large. We have recently dissected an animal in which the testicles were twelve inches long, about two inches in diameter, and cylindrical in shape. The penis of a fully developed male is approximately six inches long, and with eight inches maximum for length. The base, fore and aft, is about four to five inches, and the tip is only a couple of millimeters in diameter.

"When a female and a male dolphin are confined in a relatively small area in captivity, the courting behavior is rather violent. If they are isolated with a movable barrier between them, they will resolve all kinds of problems in order to be together, e.g., opening a gate to gain access to another pool and closing it behind them. As soon as they are together they start pursuit games. The initial phases of this behavior appear violent and can continue for the first 24 hours. If the female is not receptive, the male continues to chase her, exhibits erections, rubs against her, and tries to induce her to accept him. They bite one another, they scratch each other's bodies with their teeth. During the mating procedure; they will develop lesions practically everywhere on their bodies specifically on the flippers, on the back, on the flukes, on the peduncle, and around the head region.

"The erection in the male occurs with extreme rapidity. We have observed and timed it in our own tanks: it is something m the order of three seconds to completion, from the time the penis first appears in the slit. It can collapse almost as rapidly, and it looks almost as if it were being done in a voluntary fashion. It is very easy to condition a dolphin to have an erection. The stimulus, for example, can be a single visual signal. One trainer chose to raise his arm vertically as a signal, and the dolphin would turn over and erect his penis in response. If Elvar, one of our dolphins, is alone and a small ring, about a foot in diameter and an inch thick, is tossed into the water, he will have an erection, with his penis lift it off the bottom and tow it around the tank."

excerpts from: Lilly, John C. 1966. "Sexual Behavior of the Bottlenose Dolphin." Brain and Behavior, Volume III. The Brain and Gonadal Function. R. A. Gorski and R. E. Whalens, Editors. UCLA Forum on Medical Science, University of California Press, Los Angeles, California. P. 72-76.
Earth Coincidence Control Office

"In ones life there can be peculiarly appropriate chains of related events that lead to consequences that are strongly desired. After such experiences, one wonders how such a series of events developed; sometimes there is a strong feeling that some intelligence (greater than ours) directed the course along certain lines which It-He-She was-is programming. Several years ago, I enunsiated a format for such concatenations of events, somewhat"

"There exists a Cosmic Control Center (C.C.C.) with a Galactic substation called Galactic Coincidence Control (G.C.C.). Within which is the Solar System Control Unit (S.S.C.U.), within which is the Earth Coincidence Control Office (E.C.C.O.). The assignments of responsibilities from the top to the bottom of this system of control is by a set of regulations, which translated by E.C.C.O. for humans is somewhat as follows,"

To all humans

If you wish to control coincidences in your own life on the planet Earth, we will cooperate and determine those coincidences for you under the following conditions:
    1- You must know-assume-simulate our existence in ECCO

    2- You must be willing to accept our responsibility for control of your coincidences.

    3- You must exert your best capabilities for your survival programs and your own development as an advancing-advanced member of ECCO's earthside corps of controlled coincidence workers. You are expected to use your best intelligence in this service

    4- You are expected to expect the unexpected every minute, every hour of every day and of every night.

    5- You must be able to maintain conscious-thinking/-reasoning no matter what events we arrange to happen to you. Some of these events will seem catachlysmic-catastrophic-overwhelming: remember stay aware, no matter what happens-apparently happens to you.

    6- You are in our training program for life: there is no escape from it. We (not you ) control the long-term coincidences; you (not we) control the shorter-term coincidences by your own efforts.

    7- Your major mission on earth is to discover-create that which we do to control the long-term coincidence patterns: you are being trained on Earth to do this job.

    8- When your mission on planet Earth is completed, you will no longer be required to remain-return there.

    9- Remember the motto passed to us (from GCC via SSCU):
    ................"Cosmic Love is absolutelely Ruthless and Highly Indifferent: teaches its lessons whether you like-dislike them or not."

( Excerpt from "The Dyadic Cyclone" )